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2008年度大型底栖动物监测报告(摘要)
作者:    点击次数:9972    发布时间:2009-10-19      【字体:
 

        2008年主要监测了潮沟大型底栖动物的空间分布格局和时间分布格局,以及潮间带滩涂(光滩和植被区)大型底栖动物的空间分布格局和时间分布格局,并针对中型蟹类专门开展了互花米草和芦苇群落中的蟹类比较。

监测发现潮沟大型底栖动物以多毛类为优势类群,平均密度为42.5-2618.5个/平方米,优势物种为疣吻沙蚕、圆锯齿吻沙蚕、背蚓虫和小头虫,在空间上较偏好于北部和东部潮沟。而南部淡水潮沟中以中国绿螂和小型蟹类谭氏泥蟹数量较大。在时间上,潮沟大型底栖动物物种数和总密度变化不十分明显。

光滩和植被区的大型底栖动物监测发现优势类群为腹足类、双壳类和多毛类,时间上以6月份春季为高峰期。在空间上,东部滩涂是东滩大型底栖动物数量最大的核心区域。植被区大型底栖动物受盐度和高程影响较大,受植物种类影响相对较小。外来植物互花米草群落中光滑狭口螺、中国绿螂等物种密度均可达到很高,而且优势中型蟹类物种天津厚蟹和无齿螳臂相手蟹数量显著高于芦苇群落中。

建议在管理上,应该把潮沟系统和东部滩涂列为重点管理对象,保护这些重要生境,禁止东部滩涂的放牧、收割、拾蟹等活动,并加强对潮沟和东部滩涂的科研监测。

 

Abstract

In 2008, investigations were carried out to monitor the spatial and temporal variations of macrozoobenthos in both intertidal creeks, bare flat and vegetated marshes. In addition, the crab communities from Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis patches were compared.  

The dominant zoobenthic group in the intertidal creek was polychaeta with densities ranging from 42.5 to 2618.5 ind/m2. Dominant polychaete species Tylorrhynchus heterochaetus, Dentinephtys glabra, Notomastus latericeus and Capitella capitata were more abundant in northern and eastern creeks. In southern creeks, abundant Glaucomya chinensis and Ilyoplax deschampsi occurred. Temporal variations in creek macrozoobenthos were not evident.

The dominant zoobenthic groups at bare flat and vegetated marshes were gastropods, bivalves and polychaetes with highest total densities occurred in June. Spatially, the eastern part of Dongtan was identified as a core area for maintaining macrozoobenthos communities. The macrofaunal communities were influenced by salinity and elevation rather than by plant types. In the invasive plant Spartina alterniflora patches, abundant Stenothyra glabra and Glaucomya chinensis were present. The medium-size crab species Helice tientsinensis and Chiromantes dehaani were more abundant in S. alterniflora communities than in Phragmites australis communities.

The intertidal creeks and the eastern part of the marshes were recommended as most important habitats for macrozoobenthic animal conservation. In these areas, activities such as buffalo grazing, reeds harvesting and crab trapping should be forbidden, and long-term monitoring is necessary.